Since the middle of the XX century, more people began to focus on environmentally friendly products. A group of scientists from Austria (Sepp Holzer "Permaculture - Part 1
"), Australia (Bill Mollison "Introduction to Permaculture
", David Holmgren "Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability
") and Japan (Masanobu Fukuoka "The One Straw Revolution
") have summarized data and put forward a new global one, an efficient organic farming system called Permaculture.
Permaculture (permanent agriculture) is an activity based on observations of natural processes, with aim to create agrobiocenoses building into natural parameters (relief, soil, climate, luminosity, water availability, etc.). Permaculture is based on the principle of symbiosis. According to it, organisms in one area are a family, which will maintain its viability due to the complementary properties of each of them. This approach requires minimal human intervention. Thus, this approach allows you to restore harmony with nature, abandoning deep plowing of the soil, the use of chemistry and the cultivation of monocultures. The difference between permaculture and other types of agriculture:
- Lack of crop circulation and growing plants in the most natural conditions.
- Placing demanding crops close to water sources and reducing irrigation costs.
- Arrangement of natural reservoirs using natural materials.
- Construction of buildings without the use of synthetic materials.
- Getting the most out of the symbiotic interactions between plants and animals.
- The natural fertilizers: manure, bird droppings, compost, vermicompost.
- Protection against diseases and pests is carried out using natural remedies: decoctions, infusions, mixtures and preparations based on microorganisms.
- The refusal to digging the earth, because it violates natural processes of regulation and return of organic matter.
- Avoiding complete weed control in favor of pruning with a flat cutter significantly reduces the time spent in the garden.
- The multifunctional use of organic residues allows to solve the problem of mulching, feed and fertility replenishment.
An interesting history of the application of permaculture in practice is Kilombo Tenonde
. It is a center in Brazil, following the path of uniting the country's farmers on the basis of permaculture. They maintain the disappearing phenomenon of Indian-African culture - capoeira angola (a martial art that combines play, dance, acrobatics accompanied by national music).