Holacracy was invented by Brian Robertson, who postulates the meaningfulness of work as the main factor of interest for an employee. In a personal encounter with the bureaucracy at its worst, with all its complexity and inflexibility of structure, he began to develop his own method of building a company that would reduce transaction costs which arise in operational and management processes.
Holacracy is a way of structuring and managing an organization, which replaces the traditional hierarchy. Instead of operating on a top-down basis, power is distributed throughout the organization, giving individuals and groups freedom of action while complying with the organization's goals. Because of this, the idea has significantly grown and matured around the world over the past few years. Additionally, this differs from another socially oriented form of organization – sociocracy. For holacratic Circles, as a rule, there is a leader responsible for making the final decision, that is, the group does not have to come to a unanimous agreement. Furthermore, there is a top-down formation of teams and tasks. Thus, the principle seeks to reduce the time costs of collective decision-making and assigns management authority to the board of management or to the owners of the organization.
It is currently the most popular self-management solution in the world, with more than 1,000 organizations. Zappos, one of the retail leaders in America, is an example of a holacratic company. They introduced management through holacracy and consequently increased work efficiency, employee engagement, and customer satisfaction.